Adding commands to Paster

Paster command

The command line will be paster my-command arg1 arg2 if the current directory is the application egg, or paster --plugin=MyPylonsApp my-command arg1 arg2 otherwise. In the latter case, MyPylonsApp must have been installed via easy_install or python develop.

Make a package directory for your commands:

$ mkdir myapp/commands
$ touch myapp/commands/

Create a module myapp/commands/ like this:

from paste.script.command import Command

class MyCommand(Command):
        # Parser configuration
        summary = "--NO SUMMARY--"
        usage = "--NO USAGE--"
        group_name = "myapp"
        parser = Command.standard_parser(verbose=False)

        def command(self):
                import pprint
                print "Hello, app script world!"
                print "My options are:"
                print "    ", pprint.pformat(vars(self.options))
                print "My args are:"
                print "    ", pprint.pformat(self.args)
                print "My parser help is:"
                print self.parser.format_help()


The class _must_ define .command, .parser, and .summary

Modify the entry_points argument in to contain:

my-command = myapp.commands.my_command:MyCommand

Run python develop or easy_install . to update the entry points in the egg in sys.path.

Now you should be able to run:

$ paster --plugin=MyApp my-command arg1 arg2
Hello, MyApp script world!

My options are:
         {'interactive': False, 'overwrite': False, 'quiet': 0, 'verbose': 0}
My args are:
         ['arg1', 'arg2']

My parser help is:

Usage: /usr/local/bin/paster my-command [options] --NO USAGE--

  -h, --help  show this help message and exit

$ paster --plugin=MyApp --help
Usage: paster [paster_options] COMMAND [command_options]

  my-command      --NO SUMMARY--

  controller      Create a Controller and accompanying functional test
  restcontroller  Create a REST Controller and accompanying functional test
  shell           Open an interactive shell with the Pylons app loaded

Required class attributes

In addition to the .command method, the class should define .parser and .summary.

Command-line options

Command.standard_parser() returns a Python OptionParser. Calling parser.add_option enables the developer to add as many options as desired. Inside the .command method, the user’s options are available under self.options, and any additional arguments are in self.args.

There are several other class attributes that affect the parser; see them defined in paste.script.command:Command. The most useful attributes are .usage, .description, .min_args, and .max_args. .usage is the part of the usage string _after_ the command name. The .standard_parser() method has several optional arguments to add standardized options; some of these got added to my parser although I don’t see how.

See the paster shell command, pylons.commands:ShellCommand, for an example of using command-line options and loading the .ini file and model.

Also see “paster setup-app” where it is defined in paste.script.appinstall.SetupCommand. This is evident from the entry point in PasteScript (PasteScript-VERSION.egg/EGG_INFO/entry_points.txt). It is a complex example of reading a config file and delegating to another entry point.

The code for calling myapp.websetup:setup_config is in paste.script.appinstall.

The Command class also has several convenience methods to handle console prompts, enable logging, verify directories exist and that files have expected content, insert text into a file, run a shell command, add files to Subversion, parse “var=value” arguments, add variables to an .ini file.

Using paster to access a Pylons app

Paster provides request and post commands for running requests on an application. These commands will be run in the full configuration context of a normal application. Useful for cron jobs, the error handler will also be in place and you can get email reports of failed requests.

Because arguments all just go in QUERY_STRING, request.GET and request.PARAMS won’t look like you expect. But you can parse them with something like:

parser = optparse.OptionParser()

args = [item[0] for item in

options, args = parser.parse_args(args)

paster request / post

Usage: paster request / post [options] CONFIG_FILE URL [OPTIONS/ARGUMENTS]

Run a request for the described application

This command makes an artifical request to a web application that uses a paste.deploy configuration file for the server and application. Use ‘paster request config.ini /url’ to request /url.

Use ‘paster post config.ini /url < data’ to do a POST with the given request body.

If the URL is relative (i.e. doesn’t begin with /) it is interpreted as relative to /.command/.

The variable environ['paste.command_request'] will be set to True in the request, so your application can distinguish these calls from normal requests.

Note that you can pass options besides the options listed here; any unknown options will be passed to the application in environ['QUERY_STRING'].

  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
  -v, --verbose
  -q, --quiet
  -n NAME, --app-name=NAME
                        Load the named application (default main)
                        Variable to make available in the config for %()s
                        substitution (you can use this option multiple times)
  --header=NAME:VALUE   Header to add to request (you can use this option
                        multiple times)
  --display-headers     Display headers before the response body

Future development

A Pylons controller that handled some of this would probably be quite useful. Probably even nicer with additions to the current template, so that /.command/ all gets routed to a single controller that uses actions for the various sub-commands, and can provide a useful response to /.command/?-h, etc.